writer’s early interest in the shroud was rekindled in the mid 1950’s with
the availability of a book entitled “A Surgeon At Calvary” (*). The
author’s name is not readily available; however, this was the first published
scientific book with such a unique approach, examining the Shroud of Turin
from an anatomical viewpoint. The surgeon went to great lengths to
relate the anatomical position of the arms and legs to the structure of
the cross and the location of the nails in the feet as well as the hands.
experimented with a human cadaver by placing the nails, one in each of
the palms of the outstretched cadavers hands and fastening them so as to
suspend the weight of the cadaver from an overhead cross beam. The only
support or adhesives holding the weight of the cadaver were tissue, muscle
and tendons. The cadaver soon fell from the beam, as the suspended
weight was too great for the tissue to hold, tearing through as it dropped
to the floor.
he suspended the cadaver by placing the nails, one in each of the center
of the bending fold of the wrist, driving through the Destot’s space.
Suffice it to say, the cadaver was successfully suspended in this manner.
The large bloodstains on the shroud appear here and not in the palm.
Noteworthy too is the flow of blood which courses upward on the forearm
and over the ulna.
to pass over ever so slightly, we must examine the more primitive nail
in contrast to a common metal nail with the pointed end, the rounded shaft
and the opposite flattened end cap. The executioners nail was flat
(1/3” in width), instead of round, introducing four cutting edges that
cut into the victim’s nerve fibers each and every time he moved his left
foot or his hands.
nailed to a cross is not just a form of execution; it is also a means of
inflicting cruel punishment on a condemned criminal. Consider a nail
driven through the area just described, causing an effusion of mainly venous
blood but severely damaging the trunk of the median nerve. The median
nerves are not only the motor nerves but they are also the great sensory
nerves. These nerves, stretched out like the strings of a violin
over their bridge, they must have caused the most horrible pain. (Dr. Barbet).
Consider the abrasive action of the wrought metal each and every time the
victim attempted to pull up to sustain life. Not only is there excruciating
pain and suffering but the basic human instinct for survival is stretched
to the limit. With all of the condemned victim’s weight suspended
from his arms, it is impossible to breathe unless one pulls himself up
so that the chest cavity will expand, allowing the lungs to fill with air.
In a slouched or hanging position, the victim soon suffocates unless the
air is replaced.
German Nazi Gestapo used this method of torture by suspending their victims
from a rope hanging down from the ceiling. The victims’ toes were
allowed to touch the floor ever so slightly so as not to hold all of their
weight but just enough so that the victim would have to pull up in order
has always been capable of designing cruel ways for torturing and killing
their condemned. Reports in the 1930’s tell of how the Japanese would
take their captured Chinese enemies and tie their hands behind them.
Next, they would place a stick of dynamite in the victim’s mouth, tape
his mouth shut and light the fuse. Should the victim reach the nearby
river they could jump in the water and extinguish the wick. The condemned
had no way of knowing that a lighted fuse is not extinguished under water.
method was to tie the victim’s hands and then order them to run at the
count of three and they would be released if they could traverse a certain
distance in a given period. Right after the count of two and before
the count of three, the blindfolded victims head would be severed from
his body with a sharp sword and a hot metal plate from the campers warming
fire would be pressed on the stub of his trunk to sear and seal off the
blood flow. The victim had already programmed his body to run in anticipation
of the count of three. Wages were placed for each event....the victims
the guillotine, used on thousands of French men and women for a period
of over ten years during the French Revolution and touted as being a painless
and quick death, had its drawbacks. Many argued, rather successfully,
that the victims lost consciousness as soon as the neck was severed and
the condemned suffered ever so slightly.
great French chemist and mathematician, Antoine Lavoisier, (Lah vwah ZYAY)
(1743-1794), fell victim to the blade. In spite of his achievements,
especially his research and experimentation that proved matter could not
be created nor destroyed, he was put to death. He performed his last
experiment at the instant of his death. A prior arrangement had been
made with a colleague of his in that he, Lavoisier, would blink after he
was beheaded should he be able to sense anything at all. It is reported
that he blinked with both eyes some twelve to fifteen times after his head
was severed from his body.
though, crucifixion was the cruelest of all execution since the victim
often times would struggle for several days on the cross trying to survive
against all odds
noted surgeon develops an additional observation. The Shroud shows
only one foot with a dried blood mass resulting from the nail penetration
and severing of the arteries and veins. Why would only one foot be
nailed and the other foot allowed to flail about? Is it possible
that the victim would be given some means of easing the struggle by wrapping
his leg about the upright beam? Not likely. It was not the
executioner’s intent to make the victim comfortable. The feet were
nailed so as to not give any support. This was accomplished by crossing
one foot over the other, turning the ankle so that the Achilles was directly
over the dorsal surface of the other foot, then driving a nail directly
between the Achilles tendon and the fibula; directly into the upright wooden
the gospel account of the death of Jesus. He called out “I thirst”
and they gave him a sponge soaked in wine and vinegar. After drinking,
Jesus said “It is finished” and with a loud voice he gave up the ghost.
Thus, Jesus made a conscious decision to die at that instant even though
he had great strength in his body as evidenced by his loud cry. Later,
as we have read, when they went to take down the bodies, the centurion
broke the bones of the two thieves, (as one with broken bones in the arms
and legs could not continue to struggle for air), but they saw that Jesus
was already dead. Then one of the soldiers with a lance pierced his
side and immediately there came out blood and water.
part of the heart, which extends to the right of the breastbone, is the
right auricle. In a corpse, the right auricle is always filled with
blood as venous blood flows from the superior and inferior vena cava.
Jesus was already dead as we note from scripture. The soldier, with
a lance, pierced the right side, driving his lance diagonally upwards and
across the chest cavity piercing the heart. No doubt a skilled and
practiced art. Had he pierced the left side, he would have pierced
the ventricles, which, in a corpse, have no blood in them. Repeated
experiments, during the period from 1932 through 1937, by various pathologists
in France and Italy, would document the flow of blood from the right auricle.
This flow would pass through the pulmonary tunnel created by the ‘lance’
at the fifth intercostal space. (Blood remains in a fluid state post
mortem as long as the vessel has not been severed).
attests to having seen blood and water flowing from the side of Jesus.
What then would be the source of water? Two independent researchers
confirm that the ‘watery’ fluid was the serous ‘clear’ fluid from the pericardium,
the sac enclosing the heart. When the right auricle was pierced,
the blood from the superior vena cava, which would come from the head and
arms and under pressure, would flow rapidly, or as John states ‘immediately.’
At the same time, the pericardium, having been pierced as well, would give
up its fluid, which appeared to John as water. Viewed from the top,
there is a sizable bloodstain on the left side of the shroud in the proximity
of the right lower ribs.
looked somewhat at the mechanics of a crucifixion, we need next to examine
the history of the shroud and how the surgeon-writer links the images on
the cloth to his anatomical experimentation.
shroud dates back to the pre-medieval period, perhaps as early as the year
500. My antiquated World Book encyclopedia, circa 1964, describes
“....the Shroud of Turin as a cloth 14 feet long by 3 and 1/2 feet wide,
kept at Turin, Italy. Its history is unknown beyond 1171 at Constantinople.
Traditions claim that it wrapped Jesus’ body in the tomb after His crucifixion.
Photographic reversal of the lights and shadows of the stains on the shroud,
(which are largely negative), reveals a life-size front and back figure
of a man who was crucified, scourged, lanced, and bloodily crowned.”
first accepted documentation happens to be a letter declaring the shroud
as a fraud. It was described as “a twofold image of one man, that
is to say, the back and the front...thus impressed together with wounds
which he bore.” This linen cloth had occupied a place of honor in
the French town of Lerey since the 1350s. The local Bishop of Troy’s
in 1389 wrote to the pope complaining that “...although it is not publicly
stated to be the true shroud of Christ.” he noted, “a predecessor of his
had ascertained that the image is cunningly painted...a work of human skill
and not miraculously wrought or bestowed.” (By contrast, when asked
recently of his belief in the authenticity of the shroud as being the burial
garment of Christ, Pope John Paul II simply replied “I believe that it
century nuns described in detail a 14-foot long herringbone-twill linen
cloth, of which the bishop spoke, bearing the image of a naked and bearded
man about 6 feet tall, hair in a loose ponytail, back apparently scourged
with a multi-thronged whip, hands crossed modestly before him.” (We
will look at these hands from a messianic Jew standpoint later in this
shroud fell into the possession of Italy’s oldest reigning family, the
Savoys who dated back to Humbert, the Count of Savoy in the 1000’s.
The Savoys moved the shroud to Turin where large public crowds of pilgrims
viewed it with great respect and curiosity. Although somewhat faded,
the cloth has both the color and character of faint scorch marks on a well-used
was not until the year of 1898 on May 28 that a city counselor named Secondo
Pia (py’-ah) took the first photographs of the relic. Pia nearly
dropped the photographic plate as it was slowly developing in his dark
room and the photo of the faint cloth markings began to jump out with such
extraordinary clarity and added detail that “he felt certain he was looking
on the face of Jesus.” In subsequent exposures, his body, the lance
wound in the chest and the bloody rivulets where a crown of thorns might
have been were suddenly and vividly manifest.
later writer, Ian Wilson, would write in his book entitled The Blood And
The Shroud: “The clear implication was that the shroud itself was in effect
a photographic negative that had been waiting dormant, like a preprogrammed
time capsule, for the moment that photography’s invention would release
its hidden true ‘positive’.”
evidence seems to mount as we review the work of Dr. John P. Jackson, a
physicist working in the weapons lab at Kirtland Air Force base in Albuquerque,
New Mexico. He used a special filter to make a color analysis of a Shroud
photograph. He also ran the photo through a VP-8 image analyzer.
This machine could take various intensities of certain images and display
them as three dimensional, thus obtaining relief representations for commercial
and military purposes. Dr. Jackson was speechless as the image flashed
on the machine’s monitor---there were no distortions, no errors, in the
perfect three-dimensional image. He was looking into the face of
wife, Rebecca, is an expert in the field of ethnology, a branch of anthropology
that analyzes culture, particularly in regard to their historical development
and the similarities and dissimilarities between them. It is she,
a convert from Judaism to Catholicism resulting from her and Dr. Jackson’s
findings surrounding the Shroud that has enlightened us as to the Orthodox
Jewish burial customs and rituals. Having been granted permission
to study the Shroud first-hand, Dr. Jackson headed, in 1978, a multi-disciplinary
team of thirty-five American scientists, along with Italian and Swiss researchers.
His findings are noted below, as follows:
data supports the gospel reports of Christ’s passion. We found every
wound, from Christ’s crowning with thorns and his scourging to his carrying
the cross, the piercing of his side, and his being nailed to the cross.
After all our research, not one member of the team thought the Shroud was
a forgery. Our samples also showed that the blood on the Shroud was
real. We know it is not a painting because there is no inter-fibril
cementation---no glue between the fibers. Even more interesting is
that no chemicals were associated with the fibers. From what we could
infer that some non-chemical process or energy source imprinted the image
of Christ on the cloth and changed the color of the linen. Could
it have been radiation that emanated from the radiant, risen body of Christ?
Could the Shroud have served as the medium on which a ‘negative’ of Jesus’
body was made during the Resurrection?”
close examination of the shroud, we note a very thin penetration of the
flax woven fiber to the depth of only one fiber. No medieval artist,
no matter how cunning and deceptive, could have detailed that consistently
over a span of 28 linear feet. Nor was it until the 20th century
technology that ultraviolet light would detect the yellow green fluorescence
of the fluid exuded from the many blood clots, such exudate being invisible
to the naked eye. One researcher, Alan Adler, a chemist, believes
that some sort of radiation process triggered the image. Although
reluctant to state that the shroud is authentically the burial cloth covering
Christ, most are reluctant to make a disclaimer that it is not the burial
scientific investigation was undertaken in 1988 to validate the date of
the linen cloth. No less than three independent laboratories in Zurich,
Oxford and Tucson would come to a similar conclusion. The shroud
cannot be dated any earlier than 1260-1390. This was conclusive proof that
the shroud was medieval.
the latest scientific technology, these scientists equally divided a one-inch
square taken from the shroud and subjected it to carbon 14 analysis.
(Pure carbon is, for example, a diamond). Carbon 14 is an analogue
of carbon. This test measures the residual carbon 14 in an object,
such as the flax plant fibers used in making the linen. This carbon
14 would begin decaying from the time the flax plant was picked.
Since the half-life for carbon 14 is 5700 years, a trained scientist could
accurately determine how long the flax plant had been dead by measuring
the amount of carbon 14 in the linen. These tests show the shroud
to be only 700 years old.
debate follows. Statistically, 7056 square inches of material represented
by only one square inch hardly qualifies for any acceptable random sample,
especially when this is divided into three, one third of which is given
to each of the three research groups. Each sample is less than .005%
of the entire cloth and taken from only one location. The three test
samples, although tested by three separate laboratories, cannot represent
the entire population of all of the fibers. Then there is the question
of sample quality. The one-inch square was taken from an area that
was water stained, scorched and back-woven, indicating repair to the shroud.
These repaired threads differ from the original shroud threads.
factors need to be examined. Over a period of time, bacteria produce
a lacquer-like coating. When this coating was removed from an earlier
artifact tainted with blood, the test showed a 600 year difference and
placed the artifact to about 400 A. D. Armed with this information,
researchers examined the shroud and were able to detect a similar bio-plastic
film. Further tests on a few randomly selected filaments, revealed coccal-shaped
bacteria and filamentous mold-like organisms, increasing the diameter of
the fibers by as much as 60% in some area.
the 1532 fire have had the same effect on the Shroud’s carbon-14 test?
This could account for the discrepancy in results. Studies are underway
on similar isotopes at various heating processes to support this theory.
The cloth must be seen not only in terms of the carbon-14 measurement but
also in light of archeological and historical data. For example,
Swiss criminologist Max Frei’s work shows pollens on the Shroud that trace
its journey from Palestine through the Mideast to its present location.
If a Shroud forgery had originated in Europe, how did the Palestinian pollen
get on it?”
now, the other cloth....the napkin placed on Christ’s head. According
to the Gospel of John, Jesus left not just his shroud behind in the tomb
but also a “napkin, which had been on his head, not lying with the linen
cloths but rolled up in a place itself.” Measuring 2 ft. x 3 ft.,
this cloth or napkin is housed in a silvered cedar chest in the Cathedral
of Oviedo, in Spain. Records say that it was spirited out of Jerusalem
around 614 when the city was attacked by Persia. It has been housed
in Spain since 1113. Although there is no image on the cloth, there are
similar bloodstains corresponding to those on the Shroud of Turin.
significance, if any, can we place on this head covering? The turban,
as defined in Exodus 28:39, was part of the priestly garment: “Weave
the tunic of fine linen and make the turban of fine linen” was the command
of God, “...to give them dignity and honor.” “Concentrate them so
that they may serve me as priests,” God speaking of Aaron and his brothers.
In addition, in 29:6 “Put the turban on his head.” In Zechariah 3:1,
we read of: Joshua the high priest standing before the angel of the
Lord, and Satan standing at his right side to accuse him. The angel
instructs those standing by to take off the filthy clothes from Joshua
as his sins had been taken away and rich garments would be placed on him.
And they put on his head a clean turban, verse 5, thus reinstating him
into his high-priestly function so that Israel once again has a divinely
authorized priestly mediator. Joshua translated in the Greek is Jesus.
We see in the crucified Jesus both victim and high priest offering himself
as the perfect sacrifice.
Surgeon At Calvary author relates that other researchers believe that the
markings on the shroud were brought about by the chemical reaction of the
burial herb aloes and the ammonia left on the skin resulting from the profuse
sweating before and during the crucifixion. We should be reminded
however that this Christ whom they crucified was a condemned criminal and
as such, had no right to a ceremonial cleansing of his body in preparation
for burial. Jesus was buried hurriedly because of the approaching
Sabbath. Such a chemical phenomenon would take several days to react,
if at all.
was considered a Poresh Mayhatzeeboor—an outcast of the Jewish community—,
which meant that he could not, under Jewish law, receive the customary
(and time consuming) ritual washing before burial. Also prohibited
from ritual washings were: (1) persons who died a violent death or, (2)
whose blood was flowing at the time of death, (3) someone killed by capital
punishment relating to a crime of a religious nature, or (4) Jews who were
killed by non-Jews. Jesus met all four requirements. Jewish law also insists
that the fingers of the deceased be stretched out in burial, because fingers
that are rounded and shaped as fists epitomize pagan demonic defiance.
The hands and fingers of the man in the Shroud are outstretched.
addition, the Shroud’s rectangular shape is consistent with the Jewish
symbolic motif of Arba Canfot, or “four corners.” According to Jewish
tradition, the circle represents wholeness and perfection, while the square
symbolizes man’s restrictions. Jesus’ forelocks and beard conform
to Halachah, the Jewish law that forbids cutting the four corners of a
indication of the Shroud’s authenticity is its size, which is clearly expressed
in Jewish cubits. Used in ancient Israel, this measurement is employed
even today in the Orthodox Jewish world in the matters of ritual construction
and law. The Shroud’s size is unevenly expressed in feet and inches,
but in Jewish terms, it is exactly eight cubits long by two cubits wide.
Judaism, the Akaydah, the concept of binding, is a sign of the absolute
test of faith. Under Jewish law, burial garments are to be bound in a certain
way. Even today, only plain knots are permitted in the cloth strips
securing a body inside a shroud, and they are not acceptable in the burial
vestments themselves. Jews banned the doing and undoing of knots,
which pagans practiced as a form of witchcraft, releasing intricate knots
they had formed as if by magic. The Shroud vestment contains no knots
and no seams, just like the vestments of the High Priest of the Temple
it have been possible for a fourteenth-century gentile forger to acquire
details of such knowledge—particularly before the invention of the printing
press—to create a fake burial cloth? That would be highly unlikely,
because before the Age of Enlightenment, theological communications between
Jewish and Christian scholars were rare. It is doubtful that a Jewish
scholar would have been willing to furnish his expertise to a gentile for
such a matter.
was only through the goodness of one named Joseph of Arimathea that Christ
was “wrapped in a clean linen cloth and placed in (Joseph’s own) tomb.”
(Matthew 27:59-60. This linen cloth resembles the uniquely designed
linen weave of the high priest’s ‘checkered tunic’ mentioned in the Book
of Exodus 28:39. The way the Shroud was cut to fit Jesus mimics exactly
the specifications for the high priest’s robe, including the sash, which
could be seen on the Shroud at the time of burial. Perhaps this was
Joseph’s way of giving Jesus homage that he considered the true ‘high priest.’
know from Luke 23:53-56 that Jesus had been laid in the tomb. It
was Preparation Day and the Sabbath was about to begin. The women
who had come with Jesus followed Joseph and saw the tomb and how his body
was laid in it. Then they went home and prepared spices and perfumes.
But they rested on the Sabbath in obedience to the commandment. In
24:1, we learn that “On the first day of the week, very early in the morning,
the women took the spices they had prepared and went to the tomb.”
John the Beloved writes, Jn. 19:39-40 (paraphrase): He and Nicodemus brought
a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about seventy-five pounds. Taking Jesus’
body, the two of them wrapped it, with the spices, in strips of linen.
This was in accordance to Jewish burial customs.
did John see and believe as he entered the tomb? “Peter and the other
disciple started for the tomb. Both were running, but the other disciple
outran Peter and reached the tomb first. He bent over and looked
in at the strips of linen lying there but did not go in. Then Simon
Peter, who was behind him, arrived and went into the tomb. He saw
the strips of linen lying there, as well as the burial cloth that had been
around Jesus’ head. The cloth folded up by itself, separate from
the linen.” (Would a robber have taken time to fold up the cloth?).
“Finally, the other disciple, who had reached the tomb first, also went
inside. He saw and believed. (They still did not understand
from Scripture that Jesus had to rise from the dead.)” John 20:3-9.
did Mary Magdalene not recognize Jesus? Verse 14, why did Jesus tell Mary
not to touch him, as he had not returned to the Father? Verse 17, but bade
her to tell his brothers that he was returning to his Father, and their
Father, to His God and their God. What changes had taken place from
then until later that evening when he stood amongst them? (v19)
there some radiant force that impregnated the burial cloth with his image?
Did John see and believe that some power or force, far greater than his
ability to comprehend had occurred within the tomb and transformed Jesus
into the spiritual realm? How did the Jesus of the transfiguration differ
from the Jesus raised from the dead? How did he differ from his encounter
with Mary Magdalene at the tomb and after he returned from his Father,
allowing Thomas to touch him but forbidding Mary to do so prior to His
going to His Father? (Please note, scripture does not state that
Jesus went to His Father but it is implied in that He allowed Thomas to
touch Him, but denied Mary the same opportunity).
writes of the disciples being startled and frightened, thinking Jesus to
be a ghost. He asked them for something to eat which he took and did eat,
Luke 24:37-43. The disciples understood the impossibility of a physical
body passing through physical barriers. That is why they concluded
that the form of Jesus in front of them was a ghost. But Jesus proved
His physical reality by allowing the disciples to touch Him and by eating
food in front of them. Though it is impossible for three-dimensional physical
objects to pass through three-dimensional physical barriers, Jesus had
no problem with this.
astrophysicist, Dr. Hugh Ross, in his recent publication: The Creator and
The Cosmos, which explains how the greatest scientific discoveries of the
century reveal God, relates how particle physics is involved in more than
the four dimensions in which we normally operate. All workable theories
for the unification of the four fundamental forces of physics require that
a minimum of nine dimensions of space and time must have existed in the
first instant of creation. Since God controls all of these dimensions,
He must be able to fully operate in them all. Who is to say that
he does not operate in spiritual dimensions completely distinct from space
then do we as Christians respond to the Shroud of Turin? Is belief
in its authenticity necessary for our faith or even our salvation?
Not hardly. Our faith is grounded on the Word made Flesh. Would
the authenticity of the Shroud be of any value to the world of today?
A resounding yes! When we look back at the early church, we find
numerous instances of miraculous healing. Jesus healed many persons
during His ministry. This was done out of compassion and as a sign
to unbelievers. Believers do not need a sign but should the unbeliever
recognize Jesus through the Shroud and the continued faithfulness of His
Body, the Church, then all of the research and scientific investigation
would be worth the time and effort.
24:39 “Why are you troubled, and why do doubts rise in your minds? Look
at my hands and my feet. It is I myself! Touch me and see, a ghost
does not have flesh and bones, as you see I have.”
24:15 “As they talked and discussed these things, Jesus himself came up
and walked along with them. “
21:9 “When they landed, they saw a fire of burning coals there with fish
on it, and some bread.”
21:41-43 “Do you have anything to eat? They gave him a piece of broiled
fish, and he took it and ate it in their presence.”
20:27 “Then he said to Thomas: Put your finger here; see my hands.
Reach out your hand and put it into my side. Stop doubting and believe.”
6:7 “So the word of God spread. The number of disciples in Jerusalem
increased rapidly, and a large number of priests became obedient to the
1:8 “But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit comes on you; and
you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and
to the ends of the earth.”
24:34 “....It is true! The Lord has risen and has appeared to Simon.”
Cor 15:3-7 “For what I received I passed on to you as of first importance:
that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, that he was
buried, that he was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures,
and that he appeared to Peter, and then to the Twelve. After that,
he appeared to more than five hundred of the brothers at the same time,
most of who are still living, though some have fallen asleep. Then he appeared
to James, then to all the apostles, and last of all he appeared to me also,
as to one abnormally born.”
2:1 “My brothers, as believers in our Lord Jesus Christ, don’t show favoritism.”
Magazine: Can There Be Truth to the Shroud? April 29, 1998 Vol. 151 No
The Shroud Of Turin. April 1998 Vol. 86 No 4
Surgeon At Calvary...remembered details. (*)
Blood And The Shroud: Ian Wilson
Creator and the Cosmos: Hugh Ross, Ph.D.
Doctor At Calvary by Pierre Barbet, M.D.
Dillen & Cie, France 1950
R. Alsop May 1, 1998 AD
March 27, 1999 AD
Several weeks after completing the above, the original book was located
and returned after some thirty-five years. The correct title is “A
Doctor At Calvary The Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ as Described
by a Surgeon”, written by Pierre Barbet, M.D. and translated by The Earl
of Wicklow. The publisher was P. J. Kenedy & Sons, New York and
was printed initially in France in 1950 and the United States in 1953.
Library of Congress Catalogue Card Number is 54-5015. According
to the World Wide Web, there have been nearly one million inquiries although
the book is out of print. The book was reprinted in 1998 and is now
on back order.
recently, it appears that a renewed or perhaps an on-going interest in
the burial cloth has revealed some astounding results. An audiotape,
made by a speaker identified as Jack Sacco, dated March 3, 1996 on the
Shroud of Turin, reviews the most recent results from carbon dating.
In 1988, the carbon dating showed the shroud to be 600 to 700 years old,
however; with newer technology, the shroud is now identified as being at
least 1900 years old.
shroud is made of pure linen and the type of loom used to weave the linen
was first century technology, as well as the weave. It was 3 to 1
herringbone twill. In the shroud there are pollens from the area
of Jerusalem, some of which have been extinct for 1500 years. Although
the shroud is pure linen, there are traces of cotton. Ancient Jewish
custom said that the cloth, used for any burial purposes, had to be made
of pure linen but allowed for some cotton when the linen was woven on the
same loom that had been used for cotton. Wool was never allowed.
The cotton traces are from a variety grown in the first centuries around
of the pollen on the shroud is from Europe as the shroud had been in Europe
for some 600 years. There is also a great deal of pollen from three
other places - Constantinople (Istanbul), Edessa (Erpa in Turkey) and pollen
from Jerusalem. The pollen from Jerusalem is woven in the cloth.
To bleach the linen, it is placed in the water streams and then placed
on the grass to dry. This process is repeated many times, wetting
and drying, over and over again. As the pollen in the stream of water
adheres to the linen, subsequent wettings add to the pollen concentration
in the linen threads. That pollen then remains and is woven into
the linen cloth. The person who wove the cloth, because of the twist
in the weave, was left-handed.
interesting and impressive facts are that the limestone found on the shroud
is identified with limestone found only at the burial site, or the tomb
in which Jesus was laid following the crucifixion. In addition, the victim
was a male as evidenced by the dried blood analysis, which showed the xy
chromosomes. He had type AB blood and was 5’11’’ tall.
speaker projects some of the events of the passion and death of the crucified
one from scientific observations of the shroud. It appears that two
persons did the scourging, one taller than the other. The thorns
hammered down into the skull that were in the crown of thorns were, at
best estimates, are two inches long. The victim’s head was struck
many times with a rod and the nose was dislocated. There is evidence
that he fell several times while carrying the 130 to 140 pound beam over
his shoulder. Further, that he fell many times on his knees, face
and chest. The beam evidently slide across his back and pinned him
down each and every time he fell.
is considerable speculation by the speaker however; when he states that
the victim died of a ruptured heart brought about by the chest trauma as
result of the several times that the victim fell under the weight of the
cross beam. Granted, there occurs, as a result usually of severe
car accidents, a trauma to the heart that causes many microscopic incisions
within the heart tissue. Such a fatal condition was expressed as
blunt chest trauma.
speaker reports that, after the cardiac rupture, there were several hundred
cubic centimeters of fluid, which leaked out from the heart, and the victim
died in two minutes. Of course, this flies in the face of what scripture
reports and that is that Jesus gave up the Ghost. To give up the
Ghost, one would have to allow his body to sag down and not revive himself
by pulling back up in order to breath. Jesus had total control over
his body and the strength to breathe should he wish to continue the struggle.
He chose instead to finalize the redemptive sacrifice as all things had
been accomplished. Consumatum est! Et inclinato capite, tradidit
source of blood and water, as expressed by John in his gospel, again comes
into question. Dr. Barbet has very effectively, through experimentation
with several corpses, demonstrated that the blood flow resulted from the
spear incision into the right atrium which would be filled with blood from
the inferior and superior vena cava and that the water (hydro pericardium)
came from the sac encasing the heart. There was a considerable amount
of this watery fluid.
contrast, the speaker addresses the idea of a ruptured heart due to the
traumas resulting from the fall impacting the chest and then later speaks
of the heart being pierced, followed by the flow of blood and serum.
Further, that the victim’s body was stiff when the heart was pierced.
If he alludes here to rigor mortis, “...it should be noted that the onset
of rigor mortis may range from 10 minutes to several hours, depending on
factors including temperature (rapid cooling of a body can inhibit rigor
mortis, but it occurs upon thawing). Maximum stiffness is reached
around 12-24 hours post mortem.” (From Chemistry of Muscle Fibers
by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.
is some comment about the corpse not going into the decay process while
in the tomb. The body, according to the scientific researchers, began
to reorder itself and became perfect to a state of super order. In
this super order state, time and space would not be relevant and the cloth
would fall flat in the tomb. It was the energy left over from this
reordering of the body that burned the images onto the shroud. This
energy did not cause the resurrection but the resurrection caused the energy.
He points out that there were quantum mechanics and physics involved during
this reordering process.
something miraculous and wonderful happened within the tomb. There
is no reason why future understanding of the many other dimensions, of
which we have limited knowledge, might well play a role in explaining this
phenomena or super ordering of a deceased body resurrected from the grave.
But didn’t the ancients refer to this as His Glorified Body?
Brumidi Stations of the Cross and The Crucifixion<>Our Lady of Guadalupe
Tilma<>Our Lady of Czestochowa<>Divine Mercy Images Vilnius, Skemp,
Hyla Our Lady of Czestochowa<>St Brother Albert Ecce Homo<>Shroud
of Turin<>Meditation on the Holy Shroud (Pope Benedict XVI)
Crucifix In The School Practice
was very happy, after submitting my research at the discretion of
my colleagues in the Society of St. Luke, to collect their unanimous approval
reinforces my conclusions. I have the deepest respect for all compéences,
not to mention my absolute submission to the authority of the Holy Mother
Church. But I will not ask more than one anatomical precision to
a theologian or a paleographer I shall not seek a doctor a dogmatic definition
or explanation of exegesis or history. Actually, the collaboration
seems to me essential, each talking about what he knows. However,
scholars have told me that nothing in my findings contradicted none of
the details contained in the Scriptures and that they develop them instead
wonderfully. Confining myself strictly to my doing so I can
consider myself satisfied, without wanting to impose my views this as definitive,
which would be unscientific.
the anatomists who encouraged me, I must name. Wed one, whose approval
I was particularly sweet, my dear friend, Dr. Charles Villandre, surgeon
of the hospital Saint Joseph. As he was a master in sculpture as
in surgery, I asked her to model on my precise instructions, the Crucifix
which is given by the photographs. When they have been studied, and
better when we have beheld the original, I will not need to add that not
only has put all his knowledge of anatomy and his talent as an artist,
but more easily his faith. I look forward to his Crucifix continue
to spread among the faithful. For it seems to me that focusing on
what we believe to be the historical reality, it reached a depth of religious
emotion, the imagination of artists only rarely able to achieve (Fig. 18
death is much Crucified synthesis of research presented in this work and
I thank him very affectionately. He left in 1943, joining his model
in the Father's house. Pray for him.
apologize for giving, in contrast, two photographs, for my pait, I find
hideous and almost blasphemous. This is certainly not the anatomists
who have claimed this final confirmation of my research, very few significant
confirmation in their view. Only we have driven this macabre exhibition
obstinate denials of certain non-anatomists, knowing also badly the Shroud:
"A body can only be suspended by three nails, and both feet cannot be crucified
on a other, flat with the same nail.” The crucifix Villandre for
months already modeled and cast in bronze.
I took the dressing room of the Theatre of Anatomy, any human rag, fresh
and perfectly soft loan from my old friend and former colleague Professor
Hovelacque. I thank him most warmly, for his approval of my anatomical
research has for me and for all, a very special value.
was that day that the bodies of women and I chose the least ugly.
Its light weight did not bother me; was not a strength test, already made
on arms live (Chapter V) but a simple check of angulation (Fig. 20).
had prepared, without telling me, a lightweight cross battens, which I
placed for added strength, which can switch on a cart. The body was
lying on the cross, in the presence of Dr. Villandre, who took the photographs
have three 8 mm square nails out. Both arms are extended flat, 90
°. On each hand, to, good place one hammer the nail passes through
the carpal and plug into the wood. Then, both feet are nailed to
flat, left over right, bending knees slightly: a hammer to cross the left
foot flat, the left foot is carried over to the right, a second hammer
is cross the right foot and form the nail into the wood. The only
work a little harder, easier with our thin battens, is to drill a hole
in the wood where marked by the points, so that the nails fix it without
too much trouble. Anatomical time of the crucifixion lasted a few
cross is erected vertically and shows that the body sags and place himself
with the exact angles that I have described and modeled Villandre was long
before this last experiment for confirmation.
the body weight is supported by the nails of hands and we can draw heavily
on the body from top to bottom, without hands quake at all. Can be
tilted a little cross in front of the vertical, without the body it off.
The highlight of the feet seems to be used only to prevent them coming
off of the cross and to float forward. The suspension is extremely
strong, more than requested by the body weight. And the body is held
by three nails, without any other artifice or perineal hook or suppedaneum
thumbs, of course, are not in opposition, but in any situation, nerves
and muscles were miorts, while they were living on freshly amputated arm
of the other experiments, like those of Jesus.
was not, I repeat, a test of strength of hand nailing and tension.
I could therefore not be open at all impartial criticism, about how to
use a dissecting fresh and soft like that. Weight not did not matter.
experience was for us anatomists, a relatively minor importance, and we
do it for sure. I've apologized to the poor body, saying nnur "No
good soul De Profundis. The real interest for us was to confirm experimentally
the angles of the arms and knees which had led the theoretical study, and
in that I had any satisfaction: the experience gave exactly the same angles
as the theory. Similarly, the head bowed herself directly in front, not
on the side; Not surprisingly, given the symmetrical anatomy of the neck.
It is thus that we must understand "And inclinato Capita Spiritum issued."
player reached the end of the study, because I have to give him the cruel
story of the physical sufferings of the Passion, I see it as a surgical
eye, the reader, I say, must have I hope the impression of a solid construction,
making a uniform and his honest truth. I am sure in advance, if a
player who can read, because I fear very little, for my natural brevity,
the peelers phrases, I have no concern for these people always in a hurry,
which out of the subway four to four and gallop in a book with seven-league
boots. To them I say: reread at leisure, or abandon the question!
An overview of such a problem can only be acquired by a careful examination
have seen that this review, the anatomical experiments, physiological considerations,
philological and archaeological research, I was seemingly far away from
the Shroud of Turin, which I proposed verification, but it was only for
m ' bring it back better armed. Is that true, and from the earliest
times, which dominated my thoughts was the revival, for itself, of the
Passion of Our Lord, in every detail, was to scrutinize, in its physical
circumstances, the essential drama of redemption, which dominates our fleeting
earthly existence, and finally determines our eternal life.
brings me often forget the original object of my research. My search
did not keep more than a fervent goal: Jesus died for me, so how did he
die? Deeply disturbing issue, understandably, for a Christian coupled
with a surgeon.
speaking, the authenticity of the Shroud did for me, early on, although
a secondary importance, we made an error in my ranking as serious in its
passionate supporters, or the contrary one of its fiercest opponents .
Even today, my position remains as impartial as well as the SS Pius XI
said, it remains around this sacred cloth of many mysteries. And
I am far from certain that the scholars to come (I do not say science,
ignoring the lady who is), never able to elucidate completely.
think now it has become absurd claim that it is a scientifically untenable
to assert that these prints are the work of a forger. I firmly believe
that the Shroud has contained the body of Jesus and His divinity.
I believe, as I believe in universal gravitation and gravity. I believe
as we believe in a scientific truth because it is consistent with our current
knowledge. I am ready, as they must be in science, or to abandon,
modify this belief in its details, if new facts are indisputable reasonably
constrain me. Only God knows the absolute truth, or rather, the truth,
he and those to whom it has pleased Him to reveal plots.
for the shroud, I first listened to a skeptical ear, but his words proved
to me always sincere and truthful, even when they were at first a little
difficult to understand. I also made little by little for him a special
affection, as a brave man to witness, whose guileless cunning and obscurities
may confuse you a while, but it is certain that is a deep honesty.
same tenderness, I heard a man express spontaneously, its historical disciplines
were once more look to the inauthenticity and careful reading of the images
had moved up to make him believe now impossible hypothesis a fake.
This does not blind him more than me on the considerable difficulty of
scientifically proving authenticity.
will be allowed, in closing this paper aim to somehow update on our current
know, beyond doubt, that the footprints of the Shroud are not made with
hands, but they have formed spontaneously. - We have no idea, for
a fact, how and even when they occurred and manifested, at least in regard
to body impressions. For images blood, even without any confirmation
physicochemical possible desirable, I think I can say now that they are
reproducing by direct contact, the decal blood clots formed naturally on
the skin surface of the Crucified.
have studied all this in sufficient detail to allow me useless to insist
further. I would just summarize the facts that struck me most, as
an applicant urgently authenticity of the Shroud. Some are d! general
and especially photography, while others are anatornophysiologiques.
We understand that these m'aient hit especially sensitive to the point.
Moreover, it is my duty to put strict even more clearly highlight the benefit
of the incompetent.
first can be summarized quite simply. Body impressions have all the
characteristics of a perfect photographic negative. But the very
notion of the negative was unknown and inconceivable dishwasher century.
Even modern artists have failed to make an exact copy of the Shroud.
As for the hypothesis mad inversion of a positive into a negative, it does
not withstand examination.
is no paint, even on high magnification photographs in direct, full range
of clairsobscurs is obtained by simply browning son of the individual machine.
Stain, in turn, is unable to obtain gradients of such finesse. Nature
alone can produce, for example in the phenomenon of photography.
Read again, for more details, the relevant conclusions of Enrie, Chapter
I (E, 2).
the body and especially the face of the Shroud are impersonal and without
any connection with any style of painting. In particular, no painting
of the century will clam them back and even remotely comes close to perfection.
this artistic point of view, I strongly suggest the good work of compulsive
Vignon ("The Shroud". Paris, ed. Masson, 1938) on offspring probably of
the Holy Face of the Shroud, in old paint, especially Byzantine .
He is a wealth of suggestive material, has carried on, after Vignon, Cechelli,
note that the body of the Shroud is naked. No painter has dared to
present it well. A fortiori, a forger would do it not bold enough,
on a shroud proposed veneration of the faithful.
let us see the pictures blood. Note that most of them seem abnormal,
strange, different from the traditional iconography, they thwart the most.
However, testing shows me that they are all strictly conform to reality.
It is the custom art, fruit (also legitimate) of the imagination, which
is always wrong. A forger would naturally obey this tradition and
would be kept to innovate in a way as dangerous to the success of his deception.
Let's quickly review these anomalies revolutionaries.
wounds of the scourging, have. abundance and realism, a compliance
with archaeological data, which contrasts strangely with the poor imaginations
of painters of all time.
from the crown of thorns, they formed clots are of unimaginable truth.
Review the description of one of these clots front in Chapter IV, D.
behavior of the cross has left traces of excoriations fully consistent
with the observation that I have done on the living. Who ever thought
of it, if not some mystical? - And what artist has ever imagined
such lacerations of the face and the fracture of the cartilage of the nose
hand is perforated at the carpus, the only place to securely hold the nail.
Prior knowledge of the Shroud, it is always in the palm.
thumb is in opposition in the palm. Experience shows that it can
not remain spread.
painter would probably have shown the four holes with both hands and both
feet. We see only two on the shroud.
flows from the carp in the vertical. And engineering to find a forger,
there are two cast-angle deviating Acute, which is essential when
we know the alternatives of subsidence and rehabilitation in the fight
against tetanus suffocating.
wound of the heart is placed on the right. This is the most common
representation (although it corresponds to reality!). But neither
the tradition nor the forger did not know why, and how suddenly left in
the ventricles would not have given Yang contained only the headset.
But above all they were well imbued with this misconception, there is no
liquid blood in a corpse. So it was a miracle? In truth, a
very great miracle, to justify this large clot earlier!
also did the casting left a clot irregular, notched? The forger,
in anatomist warned, he thought of the digitations of the serratus anterior
also planned, by painting the casting cross-post, in a horizontal position,
the blood accumulated in the pleura would flow back through the wound in
the side and transverse flow in the back, during transport to the grave?
It has not been paid for his efforts of imagination, because in 1598, Bishop
Paleotto interpret this weird picture, as the trace of a string that has
flayed the poor kidneys!
back in front. Why was it removed the right elbow more than the left,
at the same time extending the arm and forearm rights? Was it really
that due to the contact of the Shroud with the wound of the heart is back?
any case, the painter had witnessed the death of the crucified, tetanus
asphyxia in forced inspiration, to give us an image as impressive: the
over-distended chest with its pectoral contracture and prominent; the costal
margin raised to the extreme ; the epigastrium dug by the elevation of
the coast and not, as says Hynek, by contraction of the diaphragm (inspiratory
muscles, the diaphragm should raise the epigastrium, but he can overcome
this by digging frantic due to the expansion of the chest ) the projection
of the lower abdomen, finally, that the viscera tablets specifically repress
the diaphragm contracture. Admirable painting, where there is not
a single mistake!
the minute details of the two successive flows on the plant right, one
to the toes, the other towards the heels.
not discuss if the painter wanted to show us a few details of death by
tetany with anterior curvature, in "emprosthotonos" and so many more minutes
I'll let you finish the incomplete catalog.
these specific details and confirmed by the experience as true. we
have studied one by one. They are, however, say the opponents of
the authenticity that "traces too uncertain" on which "deliberately we
avoid arrest." There are none so blind as those who do not want to
conclude that the forger, as good anatomist and physiologist, he is exceptional
artist, regardless of when you want to make it live, is clearly a genius
of such magnitude that it actually took that it is custom made!
back to the formation of blood these images. I think I have demonstrated
a number of facts.
is impossible to obtain images as beautiful, as sharp-edged on the Shroud,
with a liquid dye or other, be it liquid blood.
on the shroud almost no images of blood flows, as are the painters.
On the other hand, there is no reason to believe that the corpse, emptied
during transport to the tomb, is still able to make significant amounts
in the shroud.
images are blood on the shroud decals clots fresh or softened water vapor,
which normally comes from a corpse long enough.
portraits are a natural clot, a startling truth, down to the smallest detail.
They are only achievable by nature, that has formed on the skin and has
decals on the web. They are perfect reproductions of natural clot.
No artist could have even imagined in all its minutiae, before declining
to insurmountable difficulties of implementation.
there was this shroud of a corpse crucified. Could it be someone
other than Jesus? Here we encounter the unbelievable really and I
will not dwell. Most of the crucified were, indeed, almost all of
these stigmata (including flogging and regulatory, for some, the spear).
But it was removed from its shroud after a short time: the little we know
of the formation of fingerprints proves that exposure too long, the rotten
anyway and have issued veiled these prints negative. - In addition
to any other would be crucified and piously preserved his shroud?
also, what is the crucified that ironic pretext of royalty was crowned
with thorns? History does cites only one: one of the Gospels.
I leave you to contemplate at leisure the beautiful face, which, under
the mask Semitic divinity shines. You tell me what artist painted
a approach that, with this superhuman character.
is also possible, as has attempted to show Vignon, certain that the tradition
of this type of Christ in the artist goes back to old copies, more or less
well understood of the Holy Shroud itself.
this Man was the son of God. Here are the results of my research,
anatomical and others, the wounds of Jesus. I hope I have given the
impresion, consistent with the fact that I have conducted an independent
spirit with the greatest scientific objectivity. I've started with
some skepticism. at least one Cartesian doubt, to check the images
on the shroud, ready to reject the authenticity, if they did not fit the
on the contrary, the facts came to progressively themselves into a body
of evidence more convincing. Not only the images were explained with
a natural ease that spent the truth, but when they appeared at first sight
abnormal, experience showed that they were as they should be, they could
be different and Such a forger would have made the following common iconographic
traditions. The anatomy reflected therefore in favor of authenticity,
in full agreement with the Gospel texts.
have therefore the shroud of Christ, bearing the image of his body and
traces of blood. It is the relic that is the most distinguished in
the world, a relic body of our Lord. For those who know how to read
and think about who knows, it's the most beautiful, most moving meditations
of the Passion.
this image of our Saviour, yet decked with flowers of redemption, yet steeped
in the divine blood shed for our sins, we can truly be said, and after
the Communion, "Tua vulnera considero, illud pra oculis habens jam quod
in ore ponebat tuo David propheta thee, O bone Jesu: Foderunt pedes and
manus meas meos, dinumeraverunt omnia ossa mea. "-" I see your wounds,
having before their eyes that already put in your mouth the prophet David,
you, O good Jesus: they punched my hands and feet, they counted all my